Detroit's protracted decline has resulted in severe urban decay with thousands of empty buildings around the city referred to as greyfield. Some parts of Detroit are so sparsely populated that the city has difficulty providing municipal services. The city has considered various solutions, such as demolishing abandoned homes and buildings; removing street lighting from large portions of the city; and encouraging the small population in certain areas to move to more populated locations.
In September , Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick who had served for six years resigned following felony convictions. In , Kilpatrick was convicted on 24 federal felony counts, including mail fraud , wire fraud , and racketeering ,  and was sentenced to 28 years in federal prison. The city's financial crisis resulted in Michigan taking over administrative control of its government.
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On July 18, , Detroit became the largest U. The following month on December 11 the city officially exited bankruptcy. One of the largest post-bankruptcy efforts to improve city services has been work to fix the city's broken street lighting system. The plan calls for replacing outdated high pressure sodium lights with 65, LED lights.
Construction began in late and finished in December making Detroit the largest U.
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S city with all LED street lighting. In the s, several initiatives were taken by Detroit's citizens and new inhabitants to improve the cityscape by renovating and revitalizing neighborhoods. Such include the Motor City Blight Busters  and various urban gardening movements. Detroit is mentioned as a city of renaissance. According to the U. Census Bureau , the city has a total area of The Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge is the only international wildlife preserve in North America, uniquely located in the heart of a major metropolitan area.
The city slopes gently from the northwest to southeast on a till plain composed largely of glacial and lake clay. Belle Isle Park is a acre 1. It is connected to the mainland by the MacArthur Bridge in Detroit. Belle Isle Park contains such attractions as the James Scott Memorial Fountain , the Belle Isle Conservatory , the Detroit Yacht Club on an adjacent island, a half-mile m beach, a golf course, a nature center, monuments, and gardens. The city skyline may be viewed from the island. Three road systems cross the city: The city is north of Windsor, Ontario.
Detroit is the only major city along the Canada—US border in which one travels south in order to cross into Canada. Detroit has four border crossings: The monthly daily mean temperature ranges from The average window for freezing temperatures is October 20 thru April 22, allowing a growing season of days. Precipitation is moderate and somewhat evenly distributed throughout the year, although the warmer months such as May and June average more, averaging These usually occur during spring and summer. Seen in panorama, Detroit's waterfront shows a variety of architectural styles. Together with the Renaissance Center , they form a distinctive and recognizable skyline.
While the Downtown and New Center areas contain high-rise buildings, the majority of the surrounding city consists of low-rise structures and single-family homes. Outside of the city's core, residential high-rises are found in upper-class neighborhoods such as the East Riverfront extending toward Grosse Pointe and the Palmer Park neighborhood just west of Woodward. The National Register of Historic Places lists several area neighborhoods and districts.
Neighborhoods constructed prior to World War II feature the architecture of the times, with wood-frame and brick houses in the working-class neighborhoods, larger brick homes in middle-class neighborhoods, and ornate mansions in upper-class neighborhoods such as Brush Park , Woodbridge , Indian Village , Palmer Woods , Boston-Edison , and others. Some of the oldest neighborhoods are along the Woodward and East Jefferson corridors. Some newer residential construction may also be found along the Woodward corridor, the far west, and northeast.
Some of the oldest extant neighborhoods include West Canfield and Brush Park , which have both seen multimillion-dollar restorations and construction of new homes and condominiums. The city has one of United States' largest surviving collections of late 19th- and early 20th-century buildings. Joseph's , Old St. The city has substantial activity in urban design, historic preservation, and architecture.
The Detroit International Riverfront includes a partially completed three-and-one-half mile riverfront promenade with a combination of parks, residential buildings, and commercial areas. The second phase is a two-mile 3. Civic planners envision that the pedestrian parks will stimulate residential redevelopment of riverfront properties condemned under eminent domain. Other major parks include River Rouge in the southwest side , the largest park in Detroit; Palmer north of Highland Park and Chene Park on the east river downtown. Detroit has a variety of neighborhood types.
The revitalized Downtown, Midtown , and New Center areas feature many historic buildings and are high density, while further out, particularly in the northeast and on the fringes,  high vacancy levels are problematic, for which a number of solutions have been proposed. Lafayette Park is a revitalized neighborhood on the city's east side , part of the Ludwig Mies van der Rohe residential district. The city has numerous neighborhoods consisting of vacant properties resulting in low inhabited density in those areas, stretching city services and infrastructure.
These neighborhoods are concentrated in the northeast and on the city's fringes. To deal with vacancy issues, the city has begun demolishing the derelict houses, razing 3, of the total 10, in ,  but the resulting low density creates a strain on the city's infrastructure. To remedy this, a number of solutions have been proposed including resident relocation from more sparsely populated neighborhoods and converting unused space to urban agricultural use, including Hantz Woodlands , though the city expects to be in the planning stages for up to another two years.
Public funding and private investment have also been made with promises to rehabilitate neighborhoods. In the United States Census , the city had , residents, ranking it the 18th most populous city in the United States. Of the large shrinking cities of the United States , Detroit has had the most dramatic decline in population of the past 60 years down 1,, and the second largest percentage decline down Louis, Missouri 's The population collapse has resulted in large numbers of abandoned homes and commercial buildings, and areas of the city hit hard by urban decay.
Detroit's , residents represent , households, and , families residing in the city. The population density was 5, There were , housing units at an average density of 2, Housing density has declined. The city has demolished thousands of Detroit's abandoned houses, planting some areas and in others allowing the growth of urban prairie. Of the , households, Average household size was 2. There is a wide distribution of age in the city, with The median age was 31 years.
For every females, there were For every females age 18 and over, there were The loss of industrial and working-class jobs in the city has resulted in high rates of poverty and associated problems. Of every three Detroit residents, one lives in poverty. Luke Bergmann, author of Getting Ghost: Two Young Lives and the Struggle for the Soul of an American City , said in , "Detroit is now one of the poorest big cities in the country. Out of the total population, Oakland County in Metro Detroit, once rated amongst the wealthiest US counties per household, is no longer shown in the top 25 listing of Forbes magazine.
But internal county statistical methods—based on measuring per capita income for counties with more than one million residents—show that Oakland is still within the top 12, slipping from the 4th-most affluent such county in the U. In , fewer than 6, blacks called the city home;  in more than , blacks lived in Detroit. Detroit remains one of the most racially segregated cities in the United States. While African-Americans comprised only 13 percent of Michigan's population in , they made up nearly 82 percent of Detroit's population. The next largest population groups were Whites, at 10 percent, and Hispanics, at 6 percent.
In the first decade of the 21st century, about two-thirds of the total black population in metropolitan area resided within the city limits of Detroit. The city has also moved down the ranking, from number one most segregated to number four. This pattern already happened in the s, when apparent integration was actually a precursor to white flight and resegregation.
According to an estimate of the Michigan Metropolitan Information Center, from to the percentage of non-Hispanic White residents increased from 8. Some empty nesters and many younger White people moved into the city while many African Americans moved to the suburbs.
Detroit has a Mexican-American population. In the early 20th century thousands of Mexicans came to Detroit to work in agricultural, automotive, and steel jobs. During the Mexican Repatriation of the s many Mexicans in Detroit were willingly repatriated or forced to repatriate. By the s the Mexican community began to settle what is now Mexicantown. The population significantly increased in the s due to immigration from Jalisco.
In Detroit had 48, Hispanics, including 36, Mexicans. Appalachians formed communities and their children acquired southern accents. In , , Jews, or about 1. As of there are four areas in Detroit with significant Asian and Asian American populations.
Northeast Detroit has population of Hmong with a smaller group of Lao people. A portion of Detroit next to eastern Hamtramck includes Bangladeshi Americans , Indian Americans , and Pakistani Americans ; nearly all of the Bangladeshi population in Detroit lives in that area. Many of those residents own small businesses or work in blue collar jobs, and the population in that area is mostly Muslim. The area north of Downtown Detroit ; including the region around the Henry Ford Hospital , the Detroit Medical Center , and Wayne State University ; has transient Asian national origin residents who are university students or hospital workers.
Few of them have permanent residency after schooling ends. They are mostly Chinese and Indian but the population also includes Filipinos, Koreans, and Pakistanis. In Southwest Detroit and western Detroit there are smaller, scattered Asian communities including an area in the westside adjacent to Dearborn and Redford Township that has a mostly Indian Asian population, and a community of Vietnamese and Laotians in Southwest Detroit. As of [update] the city has one of the U. Hmong immigrant families generally have lower incomes than those of suburban Asian families.
Several major corporations are based in the city, including three Fortune companies. The most heavily represented sectors are manufacturing particularly automotive , finance, technology, and health care. About 80, people work in downtown Detroit, comprising one-fifth of the city's employment base. Ford Motor Company is located in the adjacent city of Dearborn. Thousands more employees work in Midtown, north of the central business district.
Midtown is also home to watchmaker Shinola and an array of small and startup companies. A number of the city's downtown employers are relatively new, as there has been a marked trend of companies moving from satellite suburbs around Metropolitan Detroit into the downtown core. Perhaps most prominently, in , Quicken Loans , one of the largest mortgage lenders, relocated its world headquarters and 4, employees to downtown Detroit, consolidating its suburban offices.
Patent and Trademark Office opened its Elijah J. The city of Detroit and other private-public partnerships have attempted to catalyze the region's growth by facilitating the building and historical rehabilitation of residential high-rises in the downtown, creating a zone that offers many business tax incentives, creating recreational spaces such as the Detroit RiverWalk, Campus Martius Park , Dequindre Cut Greenway, and Green Alleys in Midtown.
The city itself has cleared sections of land while retaining a number of historically significant vacant buildings in order to spur redevelopment;  even though it has struggled with finances, the city issued bonds in to provide funding for ongoing work to demolish blighted properties. Despite the city's recent financial issues, many developers remain unfazed by Detroit's problems.
Downtown's population of young professionals is growing and retail is expanding. John Varvatos is set to open a downtown store in , and Restoration Hardware is rumored to be opening a store nearby. On July 25, , Meijer , a midwestern retail chain, opened its first supercenter store in Detroit,;  this was a 20 million dollar, ,square-foot store in the northern portion of the city and it also is the centerpiece of a new 72 million dollar shopping center named Gateway Marketplace. It is the largest commitment made to any one city by the nation's biggest bank.
In the central portions of Detroit, the population of young professionals, artists, and other transplants is growing and retail is expanding. A desire to be closer to the urban scene has also attracted some young professionals to reside in inner ring suburbs such as Ferndale and Royal Oak , Michigan. Known as the world's automotive center,  "Detroit" is a metonym for that industry.
Live music has been a prominent feature of Detroit's nightlife since the late s, bringing the city recognition under the nickname 'Motown'.
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Concerts hosted by Live Nation perform throughout the Detroit area. The city's theatre venue circuit is the United States' second largest and hosts Broadway performances. The city of Detroit has a rich musical heritage and has contributed to a number of different genres over the decades leading into the new millennium. In the s, Detroit blues artist John Lee Hooker became a long-term resident in the city's southwest Delray neighborhood. Hooker, among other important blues musicians migrated from his home in Mississippi bringing the Delta blues to northern cities like Detroit.
During the s, the city became a center for jazz, with stars performing in the Black Bottom neighborhood. According to Smokey Robinson, Strong was a primary influence on his voice as a teenager. The Fortune label was a family-operated label located on Third Avenue in Detroit, and was owned by the husband and wife team of Jack Brown and Devora Brown. Fortune, which also released country, gospel and rockabilly LPs and 45s, laid the groundwork for Motown, which became Detroit's most legendary record label. Artists were backed by in-house vocalists  The Andantes and The Funk Brothers , the Motown house band that was featured in Paul Justman's documentary film Standing in the Shadows of Motown , based on Allan Slutsky's book of the same name.
The Motown Sound played an important role in the crossover appeal with popular music, since it was the first African American owned record label to primarily feature African-American artists. Gordy moved Motown to Los Angeles in to pursue film production, but the company has since returned to Detroit. Local artists and bands rose to prominence in the s and 70s including: The group Kiss emphasized the city's connection with rock in the song Detroit Rock City and the movie produced in In the s, Detroit was an important center of the hardcore punk rock underground with many nationally known bands coming out of the city and its suburbs, such as The Necros , The Meatmen , and Negative Approach.
In the s and the new millennium, the city has produced a number of influential hip hop artists, including Eminem , the hip-hop artist with the highest cumulative sales, hip-hop producer J Dilla , rapper and producer Esham and hip hop duo Insane Clown Posse. The city is also home to rappers Big Sean and Danny Brown. Detroit is cited as the birthplace of techno music in the early s. Featuring science fiction imagery and robotic themes, its futuristic style was greatly influenced by the geography of Detroit's urban decline and its industrial past.
In the early years — , this was a landmark event, boasting over a million estimated attendees annually, coming from all over the world to celebrate Techno music in the city of its birth. The Nederlander Organization , the largest controller of Broadway productions in New York City, originated with the purchase of the Detroit Opera House in by the Nederlander family. Because of its unique culture , distinctive architecture , and revitalization and urban renewal efforts in the 21st century , Detroit has enjoyed increased prominence as a tourist destination in recent years.
The New York Times listed Detroit as the 9th-best destination in its list of 52 Places to Go in ,  while travel guide publisher Lonely Planet named Detroit the second-best city in the world to visit in Many of the area's prominent museums are located in the historic cultural center neighborhood around Wayne State University and the College for Creative Studies. In , the G. Important history of America and the Detroit area are exhibited at The Henry Ford in Dearborn , the United States' largest indoor-outdoor museum complex.
Inside Detroit, meanwhile, hosts tours, educational programming, and a downtown welcome center. Chrysler Museum in Auburn Hills. The city's Greektown and three downtown casino resort hotels serve as part of an entertainment hub. The Eastern Market farmer's distribution center is the largest open-air flowerbed market in the United States and has more than foods and specialty businesses.
Detroit - Wikipedia
Midtown has about 50, residents and attracts millions of visitors each year to its museums and cultural centers;  for example, the Detroit Festival of the Arts in Midtown draws about , people. As the world's traditional automotive center, the city hosts the North American International Auto Show. Held since , America's Thanksgiving Parade is one of the nation's largest. The image is often used as a symbol of Detroit and the statue itself is occasionally dressed in sports jerseys to celebrate when a Detroit team is doing well. The sculpture, commissioned by Sports Illustrated and executed by Robert Graham , is a foot 7.
Artist Tyree Guyton created the controversial street art exhibit known as the Heidelberg Project in , using found objects including cars, clothing and shoes found in the neighborhood near and on Heidelberg Street on the near East Side of Detroit. Detroit is one of 13 U. Since , all of these teams play in the city limits of Detroit itself, a distinction shared with only three other U.
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Detroit is the only U. There are three active major sports venues in the city: A marketing campaign promoted the nickname " Hockeytown ". The Detroit Tigers have won four World Series titles. Two new downtown stadiums for the Detroit Tigers and Detroit Lions opened in and , respectively, returning the Lions to the city proper. In college sports, Detroit's central location within the Mid-American Conference has made it a frequent site for the league's championship events. The local soccer team is called the Detroit City Football Club and was founded in In the years following the mids, Detroit was referred to as the "City of Champions" after the Tigers, Lions, and Red Wings captured all three major professional sports championships in a seven-month period of time the Tigers won the World Series in October ; the Lions won the NFL championship in December ; the Red Wings won the Stanley Cup in April Joe Louis won the heavyweight championship of the world in Detroit has made the most bids to host the Summer Olympics without ever being awarded the games: The city government is run by a mayor and a nine-member city council and clerk.
Seven city council members are elected via district while two are elected at large. The mayor and clerk are elected in an at large election as well. Since voters approved the city's charter in , Detroit has had a " strong mayoral " system, with the mayor approving departmental appointments. The council approves budgets but the mayor is not obligated to adhere to any earmarking. City ordinances and substantially large contracts must be approved by the council.
The city clerk supervises elections and is formally charged with the maintenance of municipal records. Municipal elections for mayor, city council and city clerk are held at four-year intervals, in the year after presidential elections. Detroit's courts are state-administered and elections are nonpartisan. Young Municipal Center in downtown Detroit. The city provides law enforcement through the Detroit Police Department and emergency services through the Detroit Fire Department.
Detroit has struggled with high crime for decades. The number of homicides peaked in at and again in with The Murder rate for the city have gone up and down throughout the years averaging over murders with a population of over 1,, residents. The crime rate however has been above the nation average since the s   Crime has since decreased and, in , the murder rate was About half of all murders in Michigan in occurred in Detroit.
The city's downtown typically has lower crime than national and state averages. In , crime in the city was among the reasons for more expensive car insurance. Beginning with its incorporation in , Detroit has had a total of 74 mayors. Detroit's last mayor from the Republican Party was Louis Miriani , who served from to In , the city elected its first black mayor, Coleman Young.
Despite development efforts, his combative style during his five terms in office was not well received by many suburban residents. By , three major casino resort hotels established operations in the city. In , the city requested an investigation by the United States Justice Department into the Detroit Police Department which was concluded in over allegations regarding its use of force and civil rights violations.
The city proceeded with a major reorganization of the Detroit Police Department. It has been making ends meet on a month-to-month basis with the help of bond money held in a state escrow account and has instituted mandatory unpaid days off for many city workers. Those troubles, along with underfunded city services, such as police and fire departments, and ineffective turnaround plans from Bing and the City Council  led the state of Michigan to appoint an emergency manager for Detroit on March 14, Detroit is home to several institutions of higher learning including Wayne State University , a national research university with medical and law schools in the Midtown area offering hundreds of academic degrees and programs.
The University of Detroit Mercy offers more than a hundred academic degrees and programs of study including business, dentistry , law , engineering, architecture, nursing and allied health professions. Sacred Heart Major Seminary , founded in , is affiliated with Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum in Rome and offers pontifical degrees as well as civil undergraduate and graduate degrees. Sacred Heart Major Seminary offers a variety of academic programs for both clerical and lay students.
In , University of Michigan—Dearborn was established in neighboring Dearborn. Detroit has an additional 56, charter school students for a combined enrollment of about , students. In , the Michigan Legislature removed the locally elected board of education amid allegations of mismanagement and replaced it with a reform board appointed by the mayor and governor. The elected board of education was re-established following a city referendum in The first election of the new member board of education occurred on November 8, Due to growing Detroit charter schools enrollment as well as a continued exodus of population, the city planned to close many public schools.
Public and charter school students in the city have performed poorly on standardized tests. While Detroit public schools scored a record low on national tests, the publicly funded charter schools did even worse than the public schools. Detroit public schools students scored the lowest on tests of reading and writing of all major cities in the United States in Detroit is served by various private schools, as well as parochial Roman Catholic schools operated by the Archdiocese of Detroit.
As of [update] there are four Catholic grade schools and three Catholic high schools in the City of Detroit, with all of them in the city's west side. In the — school year there were about Catholic grade schools in Detroit, Hamtramck , and Highland Park and 55 Catholic high schools in those three cities. The Catholic school population in Detroit has decreased due to the increase of charter schools , increasing tuition at Catholic schools, the small number of African-American Catholics, White Catholics moving to suburbs, and the decreased number of teaching nuns. The Detroit Free Press and The Detroit News are the major daily newspapers, both broadsheet publications published together under a joint operating agreement called the Detroit Newspaper Partnership.
Also founded in and based in Detroit the Michigan Chronicle is one of the oldest and most respected African-American weekly newspapers in America. Covering politics, entertainment, sports and community events. Detroit has the 11th largest radio market in the United States,  though this ranking does not take into account Canadian audiences. Hardcore Pawn , a U. John Health System , and the John D. Dingell VA Medical Center. The DMC has more than 2, licensed beds and 3, affiliated physicians. It is the largest private employer in the City of Detroit.
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