Domestic violence can occur regardless of the relationship status, including individuals who are dating, cohabitating, or married. There usually is a pattern or a repeated cycle of dating violence, starting with the first instance of abuse. Risk reduction tips can often take a victim-blaming tone, even unintentionally. The itinerary was planned with Tobolsk the farthest destination, then a return to St Petersburg.
Humboldt wrote to the Russian Minister Cancrin that he was extending his travel, knowing that the missive would not reach him in time to scuttle the plan. The further east he journeyed into wilder territory, the more Humboldt enjoyed it. The journey though carried out with all the advantages afforded by the immediate patronage of the Russian government, was too rapid to be profitable scientifically. The correction of the prevalent exaggerated estimate of the height of the Central Asian plateau, and the prediction of the discovery of diamonds in the gold-washings of the Urals, were important aspects of these travels.
One writer claims that "Nothing was quite as Humboldt wanted it. The entire expedition was a compromise. In , he completed the three-volume Asie Centrale ,  which he dedicated to Czar Nicholas, which he called "an unavoidable step, as the expedition was accomplished at his expense. Nevertheless, it gave Humboldt comparative data for his various later scientific publications.
Kosmos was Humboldt's multi-volume effort in his later years to write a work bringing together all the research from his long career. The writing took shape in lectures he delivered before the University of Berlin in the winter of — These lectures would form "the cartoon for the great fresco of the [K]osmos ". The first two volumes of the Kosmos were published between the years and were intended to comprise the entire work, but Humboldt published three more volumes, one of which was posthumous. Humboldt had long aimed to write a comprehensive work about geography and the natural sciences.
The work attempted to unify the sciences then known in a Kantian framework. With inspiration from German Romanticism , Humboldt sought to create a compendium of the world's environment. The third and fourth volumes were published in —58; a fragment of a fifth appeared posthumously in His reputation had long since been made with his publications on the Latin American expedition. There is not a consensus on the importance of Kosmos.
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One scholar, who stresses the importance of Humboldt's Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain as essential reading, dismisses Kosmos as "little more than an academic curiosity. As with most of Humboldt's works, Kosmos was also translated into multiple languages in editions of uneven quality. It was very popular in Britain and America.
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In a German newspaper commented that in England two of the three different translations were made by women, "while in Germany most of the men do not understand it. In a letter Humboldt said of it: All the charm of my description is destroyed by an English sounding like Sanskrit. The other two translations were made by Elizabeth Juliana Leeves Sabine under the superintendence of her husband Col. These three translations were also published in the United States.
The numbering of the volumes differs between the German and the English editions. Volume 3 of the German edition corresponds to the volumes 3 and 4 of the English translation, as the German volume appeared in 2 parts in and Volume 5 of the German edition was not translated until , again by a woman.
Less well known in Germany is the atlas belonging to the German edition of the Cosmos "Berghaus' Physikalischer Atlas" , better known as the pirated version by Traugott Bromme under the title "Atlas zu Alexander von Humboldt's Kosmos" Stuttgart In Britain its connection to the Cosmos seems not have been recognized. Alexander von Humboldt published prolifically throughout his life.
Many works were published originally in French or German, then translated to other languages, sometimes with competing translation editions. Humboldt himself did not keep track of all the various editions. Many of the original works have been digitally scanned by the Biodiversity Library.
Humboldt Research Fellowship for Postdoctoral Researchers
In the original edition, the publication was in a large format and quite expensive. Humboldt was generous toward his friends and mentored young scientists. He and Bonpland parted ways after their return to Europe, and Humboldt largely took on the task of publishing the results of their Latin American expedition at Humboldt's expense, but he included Bonpland as co-author on the nearly published 30 volumes.
Bonpland returned to Latin America, settling in Buenos Aires, Argentina, then moved to the countryside near the border with Paraguay.
The forces of Dr. Bonpland was accused of "agricultural espionage" and of threatening Paraguay's virtual monopoly on the cultivation of yerba mate. He was released after nearly 10 years in Paraguay. Humboldt and Bonpland maintained a warm correspondence about science and politics until Bonpland's death in Subsequently, Humboldt acted as a mentor of the career of this promising Peruvian scientist. Another recipient of Humboldt's aid was Louis Agassiz — , who was directly aided with needed cash from Humboldt, assistance in securing an academic position, and help with getting his research on zoology published.
Agassiz sent him copies of his publications and went on to gain considerable scientific recognition as a professor at Harvard. Humboldt carried on correspondence with many contemporaries and two volumes of letters to Karl August Varnhagen von Ense have been published. Charles Darwin made frequent reference to Humboldt's work in his Voyage of the Beagle , where Darwin described his own scientific exploration of the Americas.
In one note, he placed Humboldt first on the "list of American travellers". Darwin's sister remarked to him "you had, probably from reading so much of Humboldt, got his phraseology and the kind of flower French expressions he uses. When Darwin's Journal was published, he sent a copy to Humboldt, who responded, "You told me in your kind letter that, when you were young, the manner in which I studied and depicted nature in the torrid zones contributed toward exciting in you the ardour and desire to travel in distant lands.
Considering the importance of your work, Sir, this may be the greatest success that my humble work could bring. Humboldt would later reveal to Darwin in the s that he had been a fan of Darwin's grandfather's poetry. Erasmus Darwin had published the poem "Loves of the Plants" in the early s. Humboldt praised the poem for combing nature and imagination, a theme that permeated Humboldt's own work. A number of nineteenth-century artists traveled to Latin America, following in the footsteps of Humboldt, painting landscapes and scenes of everyday life.
His paintings of Andean volcanoes that Humboldt climbed helped make Church's reputation. His 5 foot by 10 foot painting entitled Heart of the Andes "caused a sensation" when it was completed. Church had hoped to ship the painting to Berlin to show the painting to Humboldt, but Humboldt died a few days after Church's letter was written.
George Catlin , most famous for his portraits of North American Indians and paintings of life among various North American tribes also traveled to South America, producing a number of paintings. He wrote to Humboldt in , sending him his proposal for South American travels. Humboldt replied, thanking him and sending a memorandum helping guide his travels. Ferdinand Bellermann, Colonia Tovar.
The Prussian royal family returned to Berlin, but sought better terms of the treaty and Friedrich Wilhelm III commissioned his younger brother Prince Wilhelm with this. Friedrich Wilhelm III asked Alexander to be part of the mission, charged with introducing the prince to Paris society. This turn of events for Humboldt could not have been better, since he desired to live in Paris rather than Berlin. In Humboldt accompanied the allied sovereigns to London. Three years later he was summoned by the king of Prussia to attend him at the congress of Aachen.
Again in the autumn of he accompanied the same monarch to the Congress of Verona , proceeded thence with the royal party to Rome and Naples and returned to Paris in the spring of Humboldt had long regarded Paris as his true home. Thus, when at last he received from his sovereign a summons to join his court at Berlin, he obeyed reluctantly. Between and Humboldt was frequently employed in diplomatic missions to the court of King Louis Philippe of France, with whom he always maintained the most cordial personal relations.
Humboldt knew the family, and he was sent by the Prussian monarch to Paris to report on events to his monarch. He spent three years in France, from to Humboldt's brother, Wilhelm , died on 8 April Alexander lamented that he had lost half of himself with the death of his brother. Indeed, the new king's craving for Humboldt's company became at times so importunate as to leave him only a few waking hours to work on his writing. Because Humboldt did not mention God in his work Cosmos , and sometimes spoke unfavourably of hypocritical religious attitudes, it was occasionally speculated that he was a materialist philosopher, or perhaps an atheist.
Ingersoll , who went so far as to use Humboldtian science to campaign against religion,  Humboldt himself denied imputations of atheism. In a letter to Varnhagen von Ense he emphasized that he believed the world had indeed been created, writing of Cosmos: And did I not, only eight months ago, in the French translation, say, in the plainest terms: It has been argued that "although Humboldt emphasizes the basis of morality in the nature of man, he does acknowledge that a belief in God is linked directly to acts of virtue" and therefore "the dignity of man lies at the centre of Humboldt's religious thought.
Humboldt also believed firmly in an afterlife. Humboldt remained distant of organized religion: Humboldt showed religious tolerance towards Judaism, and he criticized the political Jews Bill , which was an initiative intended to establish legal discrimination against Jews. He called this an "abominable" law, since he hoped to see Jews being treated equally in society.
Much of Humboldt's private life remains a mystery because he destroyed his private letters. While a gregarious personality, he may have harbored a sense of social alienation, which drove his passion for escape through travel. As a student he became infatuated with Wilhelm Gabriel Wegener, a theology student, penning a succession of letters expressing his "fervent love". Humboldt once wrote, "I don't know sensual needs. Humboldt inherited a significant fortune, but the expense of his travels, and most especially of publishing thirty volumes in all , had by made him totally reliant on the pension of King Frederick William III.
He lived with the Court at Sanssouci , and latterly in Berlin, with his valet Seifert, who had accompanied him to Russia in Four years before his death, Humboldt executed a deed of gift transferring his entire estate to the dominating Seifert,   who had by then married and set up a household near Humboldt's apartment. Humboldt had become godfather to his daughter. On 24 February , Humboldt suffered a minor stroke , which passed without perceptible symptoms.
His last words were reported to be "How glorious these sunbeams are! They seem to call Earth to the Heavens! Humboldt's extended family, descendants of his brother Wilhelm, walked in the procession. Humboldt's coffin was received by the prince-regent at the door of the cathedral. He was interred at the family resting-place at Tegel , alongside his brother Wilhelm and sister-in-law Caroline.
The honours which had been showered on Humboldt during life continued after his death. More places and species are named after Humboldt than after any other human being. Numerous monuments were constructed in his honour, such as Humboldt Park in Chicago , planned that year and constructed shortly after the Chicago fire. Newly explored regions and species named after Humboldt, as discussed below, also stand as a measure of his wide fame and popularity.
Humboldt described many geographical features and species that were hitherto unknown to Europeans. Species named after him include:. Humboldt penguin , native to Chile and Peru. Humboldt squid found in the Humboldt Current. Quercus humboldtii , an Andean oak. Features named after him include: The following places are named for Humboldt: Humboldt University of Berlin.
Alexander von Humboldt also lends his name to a prominent lecture series in Human geography in the Netherlands hosted by the Radboud University Nijmegen. It is the Dutch equivalent of the widely known annual Hettner lectures at the University of Heidelberg. After his death, Humboldt's friends and colleagues created the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation Stiftung in German to continue his generous support of young academics. Although the original endowment was lost in the German hyperinflation of the s , and again as a result of World War II, the Foundation has been re-endowed by the German government to award young academics and distinguished senior academics from abroad.
It plays an important role in attracting foreign researchers to work in Germany and enabling German researchers to work abroad for a period. Edgar Allan Poe dedicated his last major work, Eureka: Humboldt's attempt to unify the sciences in his Kosmos was a big inspiration for Poe's project. She was operated throughout the North and Baltic Seas until being retired in Subsequently, she was converted into a three masted barque by the German shipyard Motorwerke Bremerhaven and was re-launched in as Alexander von Humboldt.
His depth, his sharp mind and his incredible speed are a rare combination. Just like my wife! We are all his family. Ingersoll wrote that "He was to science what Shakespeare was to the drama. Hermann von Helmholtz wrote that "During the first half of the present century we had an Alexander von Humboldt, who was able to scan the scientific knowledge of his time in its details, and to bring it within one vast generalization.
At the present juncture, it is obviously very doubtful whether this task could be accomplished in a similar way, even by a mind with gifts so peculiarly suited for the purpose as Humboldt's was, and if all his time and work were devoted to the purpose. A postage stamp from the Soviet Union.
Bust of Humboldt at the University of Havana. Statue at Humboldt University of Berlin , describing him as "the second discoverer of Cuba". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Alexander von Humboldt disambiguation. Portrait by Joseph Karl Stieler Berlin , Kingdom of Prussia in the German Confederation. This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Pico Humboldt , Venezuela. List of schools named after Alexander von Humboldt. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Humboldt statue in Budapester Strasse, Berlin. Florae Fribergensis specimen plantas cryptogramicus praesertim subterraneas exhibens , Humboldt's observations of underground plants made when he was a mining inspector.
Humboldt's experiments in galvanism and nerve conductivity. Ueber die unterirdischen Gasarten und die Mittel ihren Nachteil zu verhindern. Kutzinski and Ottmar Ette, editors. University of Chicago Press, Political essay on the kingdom of New Spain containing researches relative to the geography of Mexico , biodiversitylibrary. Essay on the Geography of Plants. University of Chicago Press. English and German editions. Gesammelte werke von Alexander von Humboldt 12 vols.
Hedwig und einer vorrede von herrn dr. Aspects of nature, in different lands and different climates with scientific elucidations Atlas zu Alex. Bonpland; bearbeitet und herausgegeben von dem erstern An illustration of the genus Cinchona: Entwurf einer physischen Weltbeschreibung von Alexander von Humboldt 5 vols. First edition in French, Paris: Reise in die aequinoctial-gegenden des neuen Continents in den Jahren , , , und vol.
The standard author abbreviation Humb. Eerdmans Publishing, , p. Critical Essays , Cambridge University Press, , p. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. Cohen, Ole Knudsen eds. The Encyclopedia of Earth. Retrieved 29 June Clerke, Agnes Mary Penguin Books , p. Prentice Hall, , pp. Edited by Stephen T.
Jackson, translated by Sylvie Romanowski. University of Chicago Press , p. It was also published in English the same year.
Teach boys, too, because researchers say some boys seem to feel it's OK to control girlfriends through violence. It may be difficult for your child to talk about problems in his or her dating life. Don't become angry or interfere if your child refuses to talk. Let him or her know that you care and that you want your child to be safe. If you think that your child is the abuser in a relationship, confront him or her about it. Battering also includes the use of: Physical and sexual violence Threats Intimidation Emotional abuse Economic deprivation Subtle beginning The pattern often begins with criticisms and demands from 1 partner.
Teens rarely seek help. So parents should watch for warning signs. Signs of physical abuse include: Unexplained bruises Suddenly giving up friends or activities Change in looks or clothing Not doing schoolwork Sudden anger or being secretive Refusal to let you meet a date Signs of emotional abuse include: Depressed or withdrawn behavior Use of alcohol or drugs Angry or destructive behavior T eaching the signs Teen girls may not always recognize abuse.